On May 16, 1997, in the East Room of the White House, President Bill Clinton issued a formal apology for the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male, the “longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings” in the history of medicine and public health. That study, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) at Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University) in Tuskegee, Alabama, was originally projected to last six months but spanned 40 years—from 1932 to 1972. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of untreated syphilis in black men. The men in the study were never told that they had syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease. Instead, government doctors told the men they had “bad blood,” a term that was commonly used to describe a wide range of unspecified maladies.
The study included 600 black men, 399 with syphilis and a control group of 201 who did not have the disease. The men in the study were the sons and grandsons of slaves. Most had never been seen by a doctor. When announcements were made in churches and in the cotton fields about a way to receive free medical care, the men showed up in droves, unaware of the high price that would be paid over the next four decades. In the mid-1940s, when penicillin became the standard cure for syphilis, the Tuskegee subjects were not given the drug. Even as some men went blind and insane from advanced (tertiary) syphilis, the government doctors withheld treatment, remaining committed to observing their subjects through to the study’s predetermined “end point”—autopsy. To ensure that the families would agree to this final procedure, the government offered them burial insurance—at most, $50—to cover the cost of a casket and grave.
The research project was finally stopped after Peter Buxtun, a former venereal disease investigator with the PHS, shared the truth about the study’s unethical methods with a reporter from the Associated Press. On July 25, 1972, news accounts sparked a public outcry that ultimately brought the notorious experimentation to an end. Congressional hearings were conducted, which led to federal legislation strengthening guidelines for protection of human subjects in research. Fred Gray, a civil rights attorney, filed a class-action lawsuit on behalf of the men that resulted in a $10 million out-of-court settlement for the victims, their families, and their heirs. The study engendered among many African Americans a legacy of deep mistrust that hampered efforts to promote health and prevent disease in this population group.
During the White House ceremony, the president directed his words to Carter Howard, Frederick Moss, Charlie Pollard, Herman Shaw, Fred Simmons, Sam Doner, Ernest Hendon, and George Key, the study’s sole survivors, all of whom are more than 85 years of age and the first five of whom were present for the occasion:
[They] are a living link to a time not so very long ago that many Americans would prefer not to remember but we dare not forget. It was a time when our nation failed to live up to its ideals when our nation broke the trust…that is the very foundation of our democracy. The United States government did something that was wrong, deeply, profoundly, morally wrong. To the survivors, to the wives and family members, the children and the grandchildren, I say what you know: No power on Earth can give you back the lives lost, the pain suffered, the years of internal torment and anguish. What was done cannot be undone? But we can end the silence. We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye and finally say on behalf of the American people, what the United States government did was shameful, and I am sorry.
The president placed the burden of responsibility for the abuse on the medical research establishment when he stated, “The people who ran the study at Tuskegee diminished the stature of man by abandoning the most basic ethical precepts. They forgot their pledge to heal and repair.” The government, Clinton announced, was providing a $200,000 grant to help establish a center for bioethics in research and health care at Tuskegee University as part of a lasting “memorial” to the study’s victims. Shaw, aged 94, expressed gratitude to Clinton “for doing your best to right this wrong tragedy and to resolve that Americans should never again allow such an event to occur.”